Manuscripts must be written in English. Manuscript documents should be formatted as follows:
- They should be typed on A4 form (21×29.7 cm or 21.6×28 cm)
- Double spaced
- 2.5 cm (1 inch) margins
- Page numbers at the bottom of each page; centered or right-justified
- 11-point font; restrict fonts to Arial throughout the manuscript (Use of other fonts is not recommended and could result in problems with converting your manuscript for review.)
- Avoid boldface, underlining, or italics in the manuscript
Other formatting notes:
- We do not publish Appendices.
- Do not embed figures into the manuscript. They must be uploaded as separate files for each figure.
Separate pages should be used for the following:(1) title page (s), (2) abstract, (3) text, (4) footnote(s) to the text, (5) references, (6) table(s), (7) legend(s) to figure(s), (8) declaration of Funding and Conflict of Interest . The manuscripts should be arranged in the order indicated above and all pages should be numbered in succession except the figure(s), the title page being page 1.
Indicate the appropriate location in the text of the tables, figures, and other subsidiary materials by marginal notes. Latin words should be italicized (for example: in vitro, i.e., etc., per se). Footnote(s) to the author’s name(s) and affiliation(s) should appear on the title page. All footnotes should be numbered in succession with superscript, Arabic numerals, starting from the title page footnote(s). Footnotes to tables should be identified with superscript lower case (a, b, etc.), and placed at the bottom of the table. Acknowledgement (if any) should appear after the main text, and before the References. It is advised that authors note any conflict of interest in this section.
Organization of Manuscript
A desirable plan for the organization of a Regular Paper is as follows: (1) TITLE (2) ABSTRACT, (3) INTRODUCTION with no heading, (4) MATERIALS AND METHODS (5) RESULTS (6) DISCUSSION (7) REFERENCES
1. Title Page
Provide a title page, containing the following items.
(1) The type of paper
(2) Title. The title should be informative and as short as is consistent with clarity. The title should not include chemical formulae or arbitrary abbreviations, but chemical symbols may be used to indicate the structures of isotopically labeled compounds. The numbering of parts in a series of papers is not permitted, but titles and subtitles may be used if necessary.
(3) Next-line. List full names of all authors. A footnote reference(s) to an author(s), indicating a change of address, should be given on the title-page.
(4) Next-line. List the institution(s) in which the work was carried out, and the Zip Code / post code, if available.
(5) Running title. Provide a short running title of less than 50 strokes. It should be as informative as possible.
(6) The name, complete mailing address, telephone number, Fax number, and E mail address of the person to whom correspondence should be sent. To expedite the review, much of the journal’s correspondence will be by E mail.
(7) Abbreviations. Non-standard abbreviations should be defined, even if they are known to those familiar with the field. List all non-standard abbreviations used in the paper in alphabetical order in a footnote on the title page.
Customary abbreviations in wide use need not be defined in text (e.g., RNA, ATP). Define other abbreviations the first time that they are used. Refer to the Journal of Biological Chemistry for recommended abbreviations for biological compounds, Chemical Abstracts for names of chemical compounds, Conn’s Biological Stains (10th Edition, RW Horobin and JA Kiernan (eds.), BIOS Scientific Publishers) for nomenclature, and the CSE Style Manual (2006, 7th ed., Council of Science Editors) for scientific abbreviations. Use SI units only. The Journal does not print the degree symbol before temperature symbols. All temperatures are printed as follows: 80C, 37.4F, 276K.
(i) The Abstract should not exceeding 250 words. Abstract text should be divided into the following sections: Objectives (a brief statement of the purpose of the investigation along with the the working hypothesis)- Materials and Methods (A brief description of the materials and experimental method used); Results (state the results simply and clearly so that significant facts can be readily identified, where appropriate, statistics should be clearly stated); Conclusions (a brief summary of the essential results you believe were demonstrated by the experimental data and the impact of the results). Abstract should be in a form comprehensible to any scientist and suitable for publication without the full article text.
Avoid statements such as “The significance of these results is discussed” that do not help the reader. The abstract should be intelligible to the non-specialist as well as the specialist in your field, and hence should avoid specialized terms and abbreviations.
(ii) Key words. Provide 3-5 key words identifying the nature of the subject matter alphabetically in the last part of the summary.
The main part of an article should start with a brief Introduction, which outlines the historical or logical origins of the study and clearly states the aim of the study and/or hypothesis to be tested, without repeating the abstract or summarizing the results. Avoid giving an extensive review of the literature.
4. Materials and Methods
The materials and methods section should provide a sufficient detailed description of the methods to allow a researcher to reproduce your work. Companies from which materials were obtained should be listed with their location: city and state, province or country.
The Experimental Procedures or Materials and Methods should give sufficient details to enable the reader to repeat your work exactly, if necessary. The necessity for conciseness should not lead to omission of important experimental details. Refer to previously published procedures employed by citation of both the original description and pertinent published modifications, and do not include extensive description unless they present substantially new modifications.
This section should present clearly but succinctly the experimental findings. Only results essential to establish the main points of the work should be included. Numerical data should be analyzed using appropriate statistical tests.
For guidelines on how to report statistical results, see Bailar, JC, Mosteller, F (1988) Guidelines for statistical reporting in articles for medical journals. Ann Intern Med, 108:266-273; Curran-Everitt, D, Benos DJ, (2004) Guidelines for reporting statistics in journals published by the American Physiological Society. J Neurophysiol, 92:669-671; Lang, TA, Secic, M (2006) How to report statistics in medicine: annotated guidelines for authors, editors and reviewers, 2nd edition, Philadelphia, PA, ACP Press; Sarter M, Fritschy JM (2008) Eur J Neurosci 28:2363-2364. compact presentation.
Experimental animals: When experimental animals are used, specify species, strain, sex, age, supplier, and numbers of animals used in total and for individual experimental conditions. The species should be identified in the Title or Abstract.
Statistical methods: A complete description of statistical methods is required.
If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the publishers.
5. Results and Statistical Analyses
The observations should be presented with minimal reference to earlier literature or to possible interpretations. The main statistical results should be reported in the Results section. The description of the statistical results should include the proper statistical term (such as the F statistic) as well as the degrees of freedom and the
P value. The description of statistical results in the figure legends should be limited to important post hoc comparisons.
Statistical methods should be described with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, findings should be quantified and appropriate measures of error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals) given. Details about eligibility criteria for subjects, randomization and the number of observations should be included. The computer software and the statistical method(s) used should be specified with references to standard works when possible
The discussion section presents the interpretation of the findings, this is the only proper section for subjective comments. The discussion section should be as concise as possible and should include a brief statement of the principal findings while avoiding repetition of statements provided in the Abstract or the Results section.
A discussion of the validity of the observations, a discussion of the findings in light of other published work dealing with the same or closely related subjects, and a statement of the possible significance of the work. Extensive discussion of the literature is discouraged.
Only published and "in press" (i.e., accepted for publication in a specific journal or book) references should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. The latest information on "in press" references should be provided. Any "in press" references that are relevant for reviewers to see in order to make a well-informed evaluation should be included as a separate document text file along with the submitted manuscript.
References cited in the text should be numbered in parentheses with Arabic numerals in order of appearance. Be sure to verify the wording of any personal communication with the person who supplied the information and get his approval for the use of his name in connection with the quoted information. All references should be listed in numerical order typed double-spaced on a separate sheet under the heading REFERENCES.
Please note the following examples.
(1) For a journal article:
7.?Sanger F, Nicklen S, and Coulson AR (1977) DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 5463–5467
(2) For a chapter in an edited book:
12.?Messing J (1983) New M13 vectors for cloning in Methods in Enzymology (Wu, R., Grossman, L., and Moldave, K., eds.) Vol. 101, pp. 20–51, Academic Press, New York
(3) For a book by one or more authors:
15.?Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, and Maniatis T (1989) Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual pp. 1339–1341, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY
Text citations to references written by more than two authors should be styled for example as, Smith et al. In the reference list, however, the names of all authors (with initials) must be given. If an article has been accepted for publication by a journal but has not yet appeared in print, the reference should be styled as follows:
29.?Tanahashi H and Ito T (1994) Molecular characterization of a novel factor recognizing the interleukin-6 responsive element. J. Biochem. (in press)
References should be cited in the text as follows: "The procedure used has been described elsewhere (Green, 1978),"or "Our observations are in agreement with those of Brown and Black (1979) and of White et al. (1980),"or with multiple references, in chronological order: "Earlier reports (Brown and Black, 1979, 1981; White et al., 1980; Smith, 1982, 1984).... "
The use of “in preparation” and “submitted for publication” is not allowed in the reference list.
Citation of the references written in a language which is usually unreadable for general readers and those published in a journal (or book) to which general reader could not easily access should be avoided.
8. Figure Legends:
Figure legends must be placed after the Literature Cited section. Manuscript document files lacking figure legends will not be reviewed. Do not duplicate material from the text or described in the methods in your figure legends. Indicate scale bar size if it is not indicated on the figure. Figure legends should be prepared for each figure. There should be sufficient experimental detail in the legend to make the figure intelligible without reference to the text (unless the same material has been given with a previous figure, or in the Experimental Procedures section).
Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate textual material. Each table must be appended to the end of the manuscript, after the Figure Legends, in either Word or Excel table format. DO NOT embed photographs or image files of tables. Legends or keys must accompany each table and should not be added to the Figure Legends. Tables should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals, and should include a brief title. Use footnotes (superscripted lower-case letters) to explain abbreviations, statistics, etc. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.
Figures must be first cited in the manuscript in ascending numeric order. Subsequent references need not be in order, but the first citation of a figure must occur after preceding figures and before following figures (eg. Figure 2 cannot be referenced until after Figure 1 has been). Figures can be first referenced in groups or in the same figure reference (eg. Figure 1-3 or Figure 5 and 6).
Abbreviations should be kept to an absolute minimum. Abbreviations save relatively little space but greatly diminish the readability of a manuscript. In general, abbreviations should not appear in the Abstract, and sentences that contain more than one abbreviation merit careful review. The word must always be written out in full when first used and the proposed abbreviation given in parentheses. A list of all abbreviations used in the text and their meanings must be provided (in alphabetic order).
A short statement about grant and other financial support should be given, along with a list of contributions from collaborators who are not co-authors (it is implicit that they agree with this mention), and a declaration of competing interests. See above under Editorial Policies for additional items to be addressed in the Acknowledgements.
11. Short Communications:
A Short Communication is suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations or giving details of new models or hypotheses, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus. The style of main sections need not conform to that of full-length papers. Short communications are 2 printed pages (about 6 manuscript pages) in length.
The word limit is 1500 words and up to 10 references, and an abstract of not more than 120 words.